Chantaburi

Manual for Mangrove Species

 
 

The following are plant species found in the area of the Mangrove Resources Development Station 2 Ban Tha Sorn, Chathaburi, to be used as a manual for tourists and visitors to go explore the mangrove forests, and to get a better understanding of the different species available.

Rhizophora apiculata Bl. (Kongkang Bai Lek)

It is a medium- to large- sized perennial plant growing to 20-30 metres in height with the grey or pinkish grey outer bark. It produces stilt roots that may reach 3-8 metres high to anchor the plant, and branches out extensively.

Leaves are single and elliptical arranged in a decussate order along the stem. They are thick and glossy dark green on the upper side and pale on the underside with smooth rims.

Rhizophora mucronata Poir (Kongkang Bai Yai)

It is a large - sized perennial mangrove plant growing to 25-30 metres in height with the rough outer bark grey or dark. It produces stilt roots that may reach 2-7 metres high to anchor the plant, and branches out extensively.

Leaves are single arranged in a decussate order along the stem with thick, leathery clusters at the end of the branches. They are large, elliptical and yellowish green on the upper side of the leaves with curved or sharp and smooth rims.

A propagule has bumps and is light green.

Xylocarpus granatum Koen. (Tabun Khao)

It is a small- to medium- sized perennial mangrove plant growing to 8-20 metres in height with a short stem. It branches out from the stem and has the smooth light brown or pinkish brown bark, with roots growing partially above-ground like ribbon and spreading out flat for breathing purposes.

Leaves are in colour, with a round apex arranged in a decussate order along the stem. They are elliptical, dark green on the upper side and pale on the underside with curved and smooth rims.

Ripe fruits are reddish brown and range from 15-20 cm. in diameter.

Xylocarpus moluccensis Roem. (Tabun Dam)

It is a large-sized perennial mangrove plant growing to 20-35 metres in height in a round shrubbery form, with dark brown barks and longitudinally fissured and flaking into oblong pieces. Its roots grow partially above ground like a ribbon to breathe.

Leaves are single like a feather pattern arranged in a decussate order along the stem. The leaf apex is pointed, with an elliptical shape and light green on the underside and with smooth rims.

Fruits are in a green, round, large and smooth surface.

Excoecaria agallocha L. (Tatum Thale)

It is a medium-sized perennial mangrove plant growing to 8-15 metres in height with the straight stem and brown bark. It usually branches out in the lower level and looks like shrubs.

Leaves are single arranged in a decussate order along the stem with an elliptical shape and wavy rim, and produce clusters from leaf axils.

Fruits are split into 3 almost-round clusters.

Lumnitzera littorea Voigt (Fat Dok Daeng)

It is a large sized-perennial mangrove plant growing to 30 metres with flat and spoon-shaped (spathulate) leaves with emarginate tips, and with dark brown bark and longitudinally fissured and flaking into oblong pieces.

Leaves are single around the twigs. They are thick and dark green on the upper side and light green on the underside having a round tip and wedge base with the round wavy rims.

Flowers are in clusters at the end of branches. Each cluster has 5-15 tiny red flowers.

Fruits are oval, quadrifarious with ridges in the middle, and turn reddish brown when they are ripe.

Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Savigny (Phangka Hua Sum Dok Daeng)

It is a large sized-perennial mangrove plant growing to 20-30 metres, with rough dark-brown bark, and thick round clusters on the tips. Its roots grow in a knee-liked shape to breathe.

Leaves are single and elliptical with pointed and short tips. The leaf base is curved with a smooth rim.

Flowers are solitary and axillary with curved stems. Petals are bilobed, when bloom, looking like coop. The calyx is typically reddish and green.

Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engl. (Lam Phu)

It is a medium-to large-sized perennial mangrove plant growing to 10-20 metres with smooth dark-grey bark. Its roots grow above-water with slender tips.

Leaves are single and elliptical, leathery and arranged opposite of one another, in dark green colours with pointed tips, and a smooth and glossy surface.

Flowers are in clusters at the end of branches. The calyx is typically pinkish red.

Avicennia officinalis L. (Samae Dam)

It is a medium-to large-sized perennial mangrove plant growing to 10-20 metres, thick round clusters on the tips, and smooth grey bark and stem.

Leaves are single and elliptical, leathery and arranged opposite of one another, nearly circular or oval, narrow at the base and have a smooth rim, with dark green on the upper side and khaki on the underside.

Fruits are heart-shaped nearly flat, covered with light yellow-brown hair, and abruptly narrowed to a short beak.

Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) (Lumpho Thale)

It is a medium-to large-sized perennial mangrove plant growing to 25 metres with spread flat leaves, smooth pinkish grey bark, and spreading roots in a small fin shape.

Leaves are frequently in four leaflets, elliptical, with leathery and arranged opposite of one another, shallow curved and round at the tips. The leaf base is curved with a smooth rim.

Fruits and pods are hard and flat. The young pods are green and turn into dark brown color when they are ripe.